Revealed: secret European deals to hand over private data to America [ TOP SECRET – NOT TO BE SEEN ]

Deleted Article by The Guardian
Revealed: secret European deals to hand over private data to America
Germany ‘among countries offering intelligence’ according to new claims by former US defence analyst
At least six European Union countries in addition to Britain have been colluding with the US over the mass harvesting of personal communications data,
according to a former contractor to America’s National Security Agency, who said the public should not be “kept in the dark”.
Wayne Madsen, a former US navy lieutenant who first worked for the NSA in 1985 and over the next 12 years held several sensitive positions within the
agency, names Denmark, the Netherlands, France, Germany, Spain and Italy as having secret deals with the US.
Madsen said the countries had “formal second and third party status” under signal intelligence (sigint) agreements that compels them to hand
over data, including mobile phone and internet information to the NSA if requested.
Under international intelligence agreements, confirmed by declassified documents, nations are categorised by the US according to their trust level. The US
is first party while the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand enjoy second party relationships. Germany and France have third party relationships.
In an interview published last night on the blog, Madsen, who has been attacked for holding controversial views on espionage issues,
said he had decided to speak out after becoming concerned about the “half story” told by EU politicians regarding the extent of the NSA’s
activities in Europe.
He said that under the agreements, which were drawn up after the second world war, the “NSA gets the lion’s share” of the sigint
“take”. In return, the third parties to the NSA agreements received “highly sanitised intelligence”.
Madsen said he was alarmed at the “sanctimonious outcry” of political leaders who were “feigning shock” about the spying operations
while staying silent about their own arrangements with the US, and was particularly concerned that senior German politicians had accused the UK of spying
when their country had a similar third-party deal with the NSA.
Although the level of co-operation provided by other European countries to the NSA is not on the same scale as that provided by the UK, the allegations are
potentially embarrassing.
“I can’t understand how Angela Merkel can keep a straight face, demanding assurances from [Barack] Obama and the UK while Germany has entered into
those exact relationships,” Madsen said.
The Liberal Democrat MEP Baroness Ludford, a senior member of the European parliament’s civil liberties, justice and home affairs committee, said
Madsen’s allegations confirmed that the entire system for monitoring data interception was a mess, because the EU was unable to intervene in intelligence
matters, which remained the exclusive concern of national governments.
“The intelligence agencies are exploiting these contradictions and no one is really holding them to account,” Ludford said. “It’s
terribly undermining to liberal democracy.”
Madsen’s disclosures have prompted calls for European governments to come clean on their arrangements with the NSA. “There needs to be transparency
as to whether or not it is legal for the US or any other security service to interrogate private material,” said John Cooper QC, a leading
international human rights lawyer. “The problem here is that none of these arrangements has been debated in any democratic arena. I agree with
William Hague that sometimes things have to be done in secret, but you don’t break the law in secret.”
Madsen said all seven European countries and the US have access to the Tat 14 fibre-optic cable network running between Denmark and Germany, the
Netherlands, France, the UK and the US, allowing them to intercept vast amounts of data, including phone calls, emails and records of users’ access to
He said the public needed to be made aware of the full scale of the communication-sharing arrangements between European countries and the US, which predate
the internet and became of strategic importance during the cold war.
The covert relationship between the countries was first outlined in a 2001 report by the European parliament, but their explicit connection with the NSA
was not publicised until Madsen decided to speak out.
The European parliament’s report followed revelations that the NSA was conducting a global intelligence-gathering operation, known as Echelon, which
appears to have established the framework for European member states to collaborate with the US.
“A lot of this information isn’t secret, nor is it new,” Madsen said. “It’s just that governments have chosen to keep the public in the
dark about it. The days when they could get away with a conspiracy of silence are over.”
This month another former NSA contractor, Edward Snowden, revealed to the Guardian previously undisclosed US programmes to monitor telephone and internet
traffic. The NSA is alleged to have shared some of its data, gathered using a specialist tool called Prism, with Britain’s GCHQ.

The US Supreme Court Goes Queer

In a bankrupt nation the only way to BUY hearts & minds is to horse trade genital rights,

This game gone a long time, … a long time ago you had to PAY for votes if you were a poitician, now you just threaten one group over another with their right for what to do with their genitals.

As if it was ever the governments say in dicks and pussy?

But cut to the chase, this is all about fudge-packers and their ‘right’ to collect social security, … with all the blue-hairs in the USA, think james, … its little wonder, if the fudge packers claim social-security, then the bankruptcy is that much sooner,

genitialia debates are boring, for the supreme court to become obsessed with what people do with their dick and/or cunt, … its fucking sad times,

I always say a judge is just a lawyer that got lucky, and a lawyer is just a parasite that had brains, … America is a nation of lawyers, .. enough said about WHY we are fucked.



Long ago, there was the SHERIFF, and there is a JUDGE, the SHERIFF was accountable to the people, and the judge was a PEER, with NO law degree, over the YEARS the US BAR ( attorney mafia ), changed judges and sheriff to BAR-MAFIA puppets that make big money on US dole. Enough said the entire American Dream has been fucked in the ASS by the US Attorney Mafia ( aka BAR ).


NSA/DHS Introduce “MAIN CORE SECURITY INDEX” – The Master List of US Citizens Targeted for Execution

A Giant Blackmail Machine

Recent disclosures by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden have done much to dispel remaining myths (government spying is “focused,” “legal,” etc.) surrounding the secret state’s privacy-killing surveillance programs.

It now seems likely that NSA is hoovering up far more than the “telephony metadata” revealed by The Guardian’s publication of the secret FISA Court Order to Verizon Business Services.

Following-up on PRISM program reporting, The Washington Post disclosed June 15 that the Bush administration’s “warrantless wiretapping” program STELLAR WIND “was succeeded by four major lines of intelligence collection in the territorial United States, together capable of spanning the full range of modern telecommunications, according to the interviews and documents.”

“Two of the four collection programs, one each for telephony and the Internet,” Barton Gellman reported, “process trillions of ‘metadata’ records for storage and analysis in systems called MAINWAY and MARINA, respectively.”

According to the Post, “Metadata includes highly revealing information about the times, places, devices and participants in electronic communication, but not its contents. The bulk collection of telephone call records from Verizon Business Services, disclosed this month by the British newspaper the Guardian, is one source of raw intelligence for MAINWAY.”

Dropping a bombshell, although withholding supporting documents, Gellman reports that the “other two types of collection, which operate on a much smaller scale, are aimed at content. One of them intercepts telephone calls and routes the spoken words to a system called ­NUCLEON.”

“MARINA and the collection tools that feed it are probably the least known of the NSA’s domestic operations,” the Post averred. “Yet they probably capture information about more American citizens than any other, because the volume of e-mail, chats and other Internet communications far exceeds the volume of standard telephone calls.”

“The NSA calls Internet metadata ‘digital network information.’ Sophisticated analysis of those records can reveal unknown associates of known terrorism suspects. Depending on the methods applied, it can also expose medical conditions, political or religious affiliations, confidential business negotiations and extramarital affairs.”

In other words, it seems likely that harvested data gleaned from phone calls, emails, video chats and credit card records are being used in ways that are as old as the spy game itself: political and economic blackmail.

Indeed, NSA whistleblower Russ Tice, the principal source for The New York Times exposé of illegal Bush administration spy programs, told Sibel Edmonds’ Boiling Frogs Post podcast that the secret state has ordered surveillance on a wide range of groups and individuals, including antiwar activists, high-ranking military officials, lawmakers and diplomats.

According to Tice:

“Okay. They went after–and I know this because I had my hands literally on the paperwork for these sort of things–they went after high-ranking military officers; they went after members of Congress, both Senate and the House, especially on the intelligence committees and on the armed services committees and some of the–and judicial. But they went after other ones, too. They went after lawyers and law firms. All kinds of–heaps of lawyers and law firms. They went after judges. One of the judges is now sitting on the Supreme Court that I had his wiretap information in my hand. Two are former FISA court judges. They went after State Department officials. They went after people in the executive service that were part of the White House–their own people. They went after antiwar groups. They went after US international–US companies that that do international business, you know, business around the world. They went after US banking firms and financial firms that do international business. They went after NGOs that–like the Red Cross, people like that that go overseas and do humanitarian work. They went after a few antiwar and civil rights groups. So, you know, don’t tell me that there’s no abuse, because I’ve had this stuff in my hand and looked at it.”

“Here’s the big one,” Tice told hosts Sibel Edmonds and Peter B. Collins, “this was in summer of 2004, one of the papers that I held in my hand was to wiretap a bunch of numbers associated with a 40-something-year-old wannabe senator for Illinois. You wouldn’t happen to know where that guy lives right now would you? It’s a big white house in Washington, D.C. That’s who they went after, and that’s the president of the United States now.”

Other political targets revealed by Tice included all nine Supreme Court justices, Senate Intelligence Committee head Dianne Feinstein (D-CA), Sen. John McCain (R-AZ), House Minority leader Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) and ousted CIA director General David Petraeus, who allegedly resigned over a sex scandal.

Is it any wonder then, that House and Senate leaders driving the “oversight” clown car are the ones now braying loudest for Ed Snowden’s head!

Like ECHELON, Only on Steroids

A new series of disclosures published by The Guardian, based on the Snowden files but, like the Post, without public disclosure of the actual documents, we learned that Britain’s Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) “has secretly gained access to the network of cables which carry the world’s phone calls and internet traffic and has started to process vast streams of sensitive personal information which it is sharing with its American partner, the National Security Agency (NSA).”

“The sheer scale of the agency’s ambition is reflected in the titles of its two principal components: Mastering the Internet and Global Telecoms Exploitation, aimed at scooping up as much online and telephone traffic as possible,” The Guardian reported.

Britain’s “Mastering the Internet” scheme was first reported by The Register and The Sunday Times back in 2009; Antifascist Calling published an analysis of NSA’s key role in the GCHQ program; a few months later, citing documents posted by WikiLeaks, AFC commented on the cozy relations amongst private intelligence contractors, the European Union and the secret state.

The architecture of these highly intrusive, illegal programs was created decades ago however, in intelligence-sharing arrangements in the English speaking world under the rubric of NSA’s global surveillance network known as ECHELON.

As one of the “Five Eyes” partner agencies of the Cold War-era UKUSA Security Agreement (US, UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand) exposed by journalists Duncan Campbell and Nicky Hager in their ECHELON investigations, GCHQ, through a contemporary operation code named TEMPORA, has tapped into and stored vast quantities of data gleaned from fiber optic cables passing through the UK.

“This includes recordings of phone calls, the content of email messages, entries on Facebook and the history of any internet user’s access to websites–all of which is deemed legal, even though the warrant system was supposed to limit interception to a specified range of targets,” The Guardian reported.

But as we know from Campbell and Hager’s reporting, while intelligence and law enforcement officials in Britain and the United States are required to obtain an individualized warrant to target a suspect’s communications in their own nation, no such restrictions apply should one of the five “partner agencies” spy on another country’s citizens. One must assume this arrangement continues today.

“The documents reveal that by last year GCHQ was handling 600m ‘telephone events’ each day,” The Guardian disclosed, and “had tapped more than 200 fibre-optic cables and was able to process data from at least 46 of them at a time.”

That GCHQ did so on the basis of “secret agreements with commercial companies, described in one document as ‘intercept partners’,” should come as now surprise to readers of this blog.

According to Snowden documents “seen” but not published by The Guardian, “some companies have been paid for the cost of their co-operation and GCHQ went to great lengths to keep their names secret. They were assigned ‘sensitive relationship teams’ and staff were urged in one internal guidance paper to disguise the origin of ‘special source’ material in their reports for fear that the role of the companies as intercept partners would cause ‘high-level political fallout’.”

“It’s not just a US problem. The UK has a huge dog in this fight,” Snowden told The Guardian. “They [GCHQ] are worse than the US.”

The latest revelations have certainly raised eyebrows in Hong Kong and China, long accused by US political hacks of waging “aggressive cyberwarfare” against US defense and financial networks.

On Sunday, the South China Morning Post disclosed that “US spies are hacking into Chinese mobile phone companies to steal text messages and attacking the servers at Tsinghua University,” according to documents provided to the Post by Edward Snowden.

The Post revealed that the US is “hacking” computers “at the Hong Kong headquarters of Pacnet, which owns one of the most extensive submarine cable networks in the region.”

“Pacnet,” the Hong Kong newspaper explained, “recently signed major deals with the mainland’s top mobile phone companies, owns more than 46,000 kilometres of fibre-optic cables. The cables connect its regional data centres across the Asia-Pacific region, including Hong Kong, the mainland, Japan, South Korea, Singapore and Taiwan. It also has offices in the US.”

Talk about the (US) pot calling the (Chinese) kettle black!

NSA Data Fed to Main Core Security Index?

As sinister as these programs are, is there another component which taps “into data from an ad-hoc collection of so-called ‘black programs’ whose existence is undisclosed,” as alluded to by The Wall Street Journal five years ago?

In a recent interview with the conservative web site, The Daily Caller, former NSA technical director and whistleblower William Binney said while he doesn’t think “they’re recording all of it,” what they do however, “is take their target list, which is somewhere on the order of 500,000 to a million people. They look through these phone numbers and they target those and that’s what they record.”

“500,000 to a million people”? Who are they? Foreign citizens, Americans? If the latter, is Binney’s statement confirmation of reporting by journalists Christopher Ketchum and Tim Shorrock about the existence of a secret “Continuity of Government” database of “suspect” Americans known as Main Core?

“One knowledgeable source claims that 8 million Americans are now listed in Main Core as potentially suspect,” Ketchum reported. “In the event of a national emergency, these people could be subject to everything from heightened surveillance and tracking to direct questioning and possibly even detention.”

As we now know, US government intelligence agencies including the CIA, DHS, the FBI, military outfits such as US Northern Command and the 70-odd “public-private” fusion centers scattered across the country have spied on antiwar activists, Ron Paul supporters, anarchists, socialists, gun rights’ proponents and, as revealed by journalist Beau Hodai in his troubling report, Dissent or Terror, Occupy Wall Street.

Did all the data secretly scooped up on law-abiding Americans exercising their constitutionally protected right to free speech wind up in the government’s ultra-secret Main Core security index?

“Another well-informed source–a former military operative regularly briefed by members of the intelligence community” told Ketchum: “‘The more data you have on a particular target, the better [the software] can predict what the target will do, where the target will go, who it will turn to for help,’ he says. ‘Main Core is the table of contents for all the illegal information that the U.S. government has [compiled] on specific targets.’ An intelligence expert who has been briefed by high-level contacts in the Department of Homeland Security confirms that a database of this sort exists, but adds that ‘it is less a mega-database than a way to search numerous other agency databases at the same time’.”

A few months after Ketchum’s report appeared, Shorrock informed us that during an interview with financial consultant Norman Bailey, who headed “a special unit within the Office of the Director of National Intelligence focused on financial intelligence on Cuba and Venezuela–the NSA has been using its vast powers with signals intelligence to track financial transactions around the world since the early 1980s.”

“After 9/11,” Bailey told Shorrock, NSA signals intelligence intercept capabilities were “instantly seen within the US government as a critical tool in the war on terror–and apparently was deployed by the Bush administration inside the United States.”

“In September 2001,” Shorrock disclosed, “a contemporary version of the [Reagan era] Continuity of Government program was put into play in the hours after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, when Vice President Cheney and senior members of Congress were dispersed to ‘undisclosed locations’ to maintain government functions.”

“It was during this emergency period,” Shorrock wrote, “that President Bush may have authorized the NSA to begin actively using the Main Core database for domestic surveillance.”

“If Main Core does exist, says Philip Giraldi, a former CIA counterterrorism officer and an outspoken critic of the agency, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is its likely home,” Ketchum averred.

“‘If a master list is being compiled, it would have to be in a place where there are no legal issues’–the CIA and FBI would be restricted by oversight and accountability laws–’so I suspect it is at DHS, which as far as I know operates with no such restraints’.”

“Giraldi notes that DHS already maintains a central list of suspected terrorists and has been freely adding people who pose no reasonable threat to domestic security. ‘It’s clear that DHS has the mandate for controlling and owning master lists. The process is not transparent, and the criteria for getting on the list are not clear.’ Giraldi continues, ‘I am certain that the content of such a master list [as Main Core] would not be carefully vetted, and there would be many names on it for many reasons–quite likely, including the two of us’.”

While we don’t know whether Binney is referring to the NSA component of Main Core, or some other highly illegal, hitherto unknown program, his statements seem to confirm Gellman’s reporting in The Washington Post that “spoken words” are routed “to a system called ­NUCLEON.” Again, without publishing supporting documentation supplied by Edward Snowden, the picture is far from clear.

Recent revelations however, building on scandals surrounding the interception of the sensitive communications of Associated Press and Fox News reporters, along with President Obama’s Nixonian obsession with stopping “leaks” as part of the administration’s war on whistleblowers, it should be clear by now that the police state Rubicon has already been crossed.

In 1976, during Senate hearings into earlier government lawbreaking, Senator Frank Church warned: “The National Security Agency’s capability at any time could be turned around on the American people, and no American would have any privacy left, such is the capability to monitor everything: telephone conversations, telegrams, it doesn’t matter. There would be no place to hide. If a dictator ever took over, the NSA could enable it to impose total tyranny, and there would be no way to fight back.”

“I don’t want to see this country ever go across the bridge,” Senator Church cautioned. “I know the capacity that is there to make tyranny total in America, and we must see to it that this agency and all agencies that possess this technology operate within the law and under proper supervision, so that we never cross over that abyss. That is the abyss from which there is no return.”

What should also be clear, is that the bipartisan consensus that seeks to criminalize the leak and not the illegality of the programs exposed, reflects the profound fear in elite Washington circles of the American people. As opposition to endless war and austerity continues to percolate below the surface, it is only a matter of time before the breaking point is reached.


Ok, … let’s stop the BS, but KUNSTLER will carry it on.

Things are great in CHINA, and all of ASIA rocks right now.

The USA sucks dick, that’s why I’m not there.

Why in the fuck isn’t KUNSTLER farming in south-america? Living the good life without fear?

There is good money still in the world, SGD/CHF come to mind, and many good places, … hell myanmar is great and so is LAOS, and vietnam, … much of south-america, … CHEAP and good life.

I might add also the niceness of having PUSSY 1/2 your age, .. not going to find that in the USA for cheap, … nada,

Most of what KUNSTLER writes every fucking week is rehash, …nothing new under the kunstler sun, … most interesting just to see what BS he’s pushing,

It all goes down to KUNSTLER lives in the sticks and farms, and then publishes dumb fucking books for morons to BUY, and that’s his income.

I concur above his batting-average is much less that 0.005% when it comes to accurate information, but he is widely quoted and adorned by the MSM, and that should give you clue right there about his Zionism 101 ties.

But on with his statements this week, more than 90% bullshit, just about any place on earth is 10X better than the USA right now,…

Folks like KUNSTLER have to talk shit about WHY the USA ain’t bad by pointing out how the rest of the world sucks, but it don’t


Snowden Escapes HongKong … Bound for Russia … Then ?

Snowden departed Hong Kong for a ‘third country,’ government says


“The HKSAR Government will continue to follow up on the matter so as to protect the legal rights of the people of Hong Kong,” continued the statement.

Snowden would not need a Russian visa if he remained at Sheremetyevo Airport and departed for another country from there. He could stay within passport control and wait for another flight.

However if he had to transfer to another Russian airport for a flight out, he would need a transit visa, which usually is not difficult to obtain. He would also need a transit visa to spend the night in an airport hotel.

If he were headed to Iceland, the easiest flight would be from St. Petersburg on IcelandAir. The next flight is Tuesday. Flying to Ecuador would be more complicated because most routes require a change of planes in Western Europe, which he would want to avoid. Aeroflot does not fly directly to Ecuador but has a direct flight to Havana on Monday.



Me thinks that NONE of this may be true, … or perhaps its all a montage,… me thinks for now the safe place would be Russia or China,… and get some real protection, Iceland, or Ecuador would never be safe until there is a change of Government in the USA.


Russia & China can play this to the max, and embarrass the hell out of the hypocritical USA.


Leaving HONG-KONG? Probably a lot about money, and let’s remember SNOWDEN is a fair weather bunny having lived in Hawaii, me thinks he’ll head somewhere WARM, … so CUBA could be very well, but a little TOO CLOSE to GUANTANAMO, …. Who knows?

What we do know is that the TRUTH is what we DON’T KNOW.

As giving out the truth would PIN-POINT a CIA drone-to-kill up his ass.


Manufacturing Holocaust – Why the MOSSAD/CIA Want Everyone in Syria to Die

Read this week’s ‘king james’ kunstler report, and I can say “BORING FRUCKING ZION-SHIT”, why don’t james just put a reference number up to an old post from 1980’s about peak-oil?

I mean this shit is boring, sure as hell jame’s sell’s books, but most of all he sell’s zionist 101 dog&pony, keep the fucking moron’s fixated on bullshit.

Let’s play the james-game and talk about SYRIA, and how his ISRAEL is running the US government (AIPAC) to murder everyone in SRYIA so that with no human life in SYRIA nobody will sabatoge the precious oil-pipe line that runs to ISRAEL through syria,

There’s a SHIT-LOAD of OIL all over the world, assholes like JAMES are what keep the price HIGH, by suggesting there is a shortage, but once a whore for ZION always a whore, ..

The KIRKUK fields are full of oil and 50 years ago ISRAEL paid for a pipeline, but for 50 years the SYRIANS destroyed the pipeline. Now today with ‘arab spring’ and the MOSSAD/CIA giving guns to everybody willing to kill his neighbor, … everybody is going to die, and ISRAEL can become an OIL POWER.



Much of the current conflict is always about OIL, or protecting the PETRO-DOLLAR.  Afganistan was about an oil pipeline, syria is about an oil pipeline, Iran, Iraq, Libya were outright theft of OIL from country’s that demanded GOLD for their oil. Probably the thing the US-MAFIA fears most is that they can’t BUY oil with the US-DOLLAR, because then the US-MAFIA-MILITARY would grind to a halt in days. So any country that suggests that they sell their OIL for anything other than TOILET-PAPER, see their country destroyed.


Looking 100+ years into the future the USA has the worlds largest known COAL reserves it should be interesting in the future if the USA sell’s their COAL for paper money? To whom? Most likely some Asian country. Today the only good money on earth is the Singapore Dollar, or the Swiss Franc, so most likely that’s an indicator who will lead in the future.


The USA was always a 3rd world prison-plantation colony from day-one. The Cop’s watched over the field niggers, the cops were the house niggers and the plantation owners were rarely seen. The only thing the field nigger’s saw were cop’s, … the owner were like God’s.


The God’s of course created the government, and they wrote the Constitution, a document which protects the OWNER’s, but ONLY the owners.


Today the OWNERS are terrified, the niggers are all armed to the teeth, and must be dis-armed. Trouble is the niggers ( general population of USA with less than $30k usa/year income ), are also the imperial army of the owners.


The SYRIA model is very important because as you see the USA already controls the world by getting folks to kill each other, years ago  the USA armed IRAN and IRAQ and the civil war killed millions. Back then HUSSEIN was OUR boy. Today the CIA has engineered a CIVIL war in Syria that will kill millions.


Obama has created the DHS/TSA and fusion centers and armed them to the teeth, and returning soldiers from foreign wars are mad as hell. The DHS will go door to door to collect the guns. But many soldiers will fight back,  the normal people of course will be watching TV and told that the homes being robbed for guns&gold contain drugs, or porn, or bomb-making material ( bleach, plumbing tools ).


Power and greed that made the US MAFIA the most powerful imperial force in world history, will do the same in the USA as they have done elsewhere, for there is NOTHING to stop them.


We do live in interesting times, but I think they should be lived in Singapore or in Switzerland far from the USA where the show can be safely watched.


Everyone and HIS DOG are Being Spied on by this Kleptocratic Government

Well telling the Muslims at the Mosque that they’re NOT being watched, and telling johnny-redneck at ‘jeebuz xmas’ church that he is, … has got to be hilarious.

Don’t tell me you believe this shit? I read today that community’s are now requiring DNA on your dog’s shit, so they can FINE you if a lump is found on the city street, thus even FIDO is being tracked by this fucking kleptocracy.

This story that ONLY white assholes are being spied on is PURE anti-obama CRAP.

Everyone and their fucking DOG is being spied on. PERIOD.

KLEPTOCRACY – A government ran by low class criminals.


DHS/NSA/CIA Starts DNA Testing Dogs after Feces Pile …

Fort Meade, Maryland, complex is turning to extreme measures to combat an overflowing tide of animal refuse. With Governments Leaders unwilling to let their children play in the grass for fear of dog poo, the complex plans to implement the “Poo-Prints” program, which will use DNA testing to …